Monterey Wastewater Reclamation Study for Agriculture, by Bahman Sheikh, Robin P. Cort, William R. Kirkpatrick, Robert S. Jaques and Takashi Asano © 1990 Water Environment Federation.  Vol. 62, No. 3 (May - Jun., 1990), pp. 216-226

Millionth NEWater bottle from  Singapore’s potable reuse program.

Facilities for pumping recycled water and well water in Monterey County , California.

Singapore’s  NEWater visitor centre, welcoming tourists to this state-of-the art water recycling center with  interactive displays.

Artichokes are one of many vegetable crops, on 12,000 acres, irrigated with disinfected tertiary recycled water in Salinas Valley, in coastal California.  Bahman Sheikh managed the 11-year pilot/demonstration project (MWRSA), which concluded that recycled water is safe and appropriate for irrigation of raw-eaten food crops.

Bahman Sheikh, PhD, PE   

Water Resources and Reuse Specialist

3524   22nd Street

San Francisco, California 94114-3406  USA

WateReuse Association is a non-profit organization whose mission is to advance the beneficial and efficient use of water resources through education, sound science, and technology using reclamation, recycling, reuse and desalination for the benefit of its members, the public, and the environment. 

WateReuse Research Foundation is the research arm of the Association.  The Foundation provides significant funding for applied scientific research to increase our knowledge of the science behind water reclamation, recycling and reuse.  The Foundation’s funding is leveraged with matching funds, grants, co-funding and targeted research in collaboration with other major water research organizations, nationally and internationally.  Bahman Sheikh served as a member of the foundation’s Board of Directors, and directed the Foundation’s public education efforts in its initial years.


The following links will take you to three keystone publications and some of the most informative—and important—websites related to water recycling.

Contact Information:

Telephone: 415-695-1178

Mobile:       415-990-9980

Fax:            415-648-3765


The USEPA Manual: Guidelines for Water Reuse  With many communities throughout the world approaching or reaching the limits of their available water supplies, water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water supplies. Water reuse may also present communities an opportunity for pollution abatement when it replaces effluent discharge to sensitive surface waters.  Dr. Sheikh is the lead author of Chapter 8, on international water reuse practices in the September 2004 update of the manual, now available on the web, on a compact disc (CD), and in hard copy print. 

“Come and visit the NEWater Visitor Centre and be immersed in a world of water and especially NEWater.  …Come and be edutained!” says the website of Singapore’s new potable reuse system.  The totel capacity of the three NEWater “factories” is 92,000 cubic meters per day (~20 MGD).  Over 3 million NEWater bottles have been distributed to visitors since February 2003. 

Graywater White Paper, by Bahman Sheikh, 2010.  A policy options analysis for WateReuse Association, taking into account the state of regulations in several states, extent of use of gray water in the future, its impacts on municipal water reclamation and recycling, and the risks of exposure to untreated graywater in private residences. 

Select Publications

White Paper “Recycled Water for Irrigation of Edible Crops” was completed in November 2015  by Bahman Sheikh for Denver Water. This document provides supporting evidence for the effort to expand allowable uses of recycled water in Colorado to irrigation of edible crops.

A Thirsty Planet, a new website from WateReuse Association to enlighten and inform public attitudes about water recycling, to break down myths, fears, and stigma attached to potable reuse of water, and to serve as a resource for the public when faced with decisions regarding future water resource challenges.

All Water Is Recycled

Text Box: HOME
Text Box: RESUMÉ
Text Box: LINKS

Islamic cultures, world-wide, place a high value on water’s purity and freedom from pollution.  To distinguish recycled water from the raw material of its origin, Islamic scholars have issued declarations of support in the form of “Fatwa”, a scholarly, judicial, and spiritual opinion, respected by the faithful.  Examples can be downloaded from the following two links:

FATWA 1    Issued by Abu Dhabi Islamic Court 24 May, 1999,  Declaring that Once Treated to the Necessary Level of Purity, Recycled Water “is considered as pure as water coming from the rain or extracted from wells or seas.”

FATWA 2    Issued By the Senior Scholars Board in the City of Taif, Saudi Arabia, 25 October 1978, Approving Use of Recycled Water for Ablution and Other Purposes.

Groundwater Replenishment System

The groundwater replenishment project involves treating wastewater at a plant north of Marina and injecting the highly treated water into the Seaside groundwater basin for later use.

Keith Israel Describes the Concept—see video